Category Archives: e Ancient Greek Coins

Ancient Improman Artifact Nicedeco ‘pendant Or Key’ca27 Bc476adchk Pics

 Ancient Improman  Artifact Nicedeco 'pendant Or Key'ca27 Bc476adchk Pics

Ancient Improman Artifact Nicedeco 'pendant Or Key'ca27 Bc476adchk Pics is available for sale on eBay at $19.99 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

 WOW!    YOU ARE BIDDING ON  ONE   ANCIENT IMP. ROMAN   ARTIFACT    ''EXTREAMELY  RARE$  ,    ANCIENT      BIBLICAL IMPERIAL ROMAN ARTIFACT.   WITH  GREAT MUSEUM  QUALITY LIKE   CONDITION AND DETAILS.   VERY   ''' SCARCE$$$ ''' . SPECIAL IN THIS CONDITION.  very nice ART DECO DESIGNED , '' PENDANT or KEY ''.    it is   32 x 16 mm.  WOW...      AUTHENTIC  ANCIENT IMP. ROMAN  ARTIFACT.     VERY NICE  BRONZE-GOLDEN-SILVERED     '''PATINA'''.    ( IN FACT I BELIEVE IS  WAY  BETTER THEN THE  IN  PICTURES,   IF YOU ARE NOT HAPPY SEND IT BACK , FULL REFUND NO QUESTION ASKED. BUT I KNOW  YOU WON'T DO THAT) ... CONSIDERING THE OLD AGE IS,  IN MY OPINION.   ca. 27 BC- 476 AD.  WOW...  PLEASE CHECK ALL THE PICTURES  BECAUSE  IS  EXACTLY  THE  ITEM   YOU'LL GET.   AND YOU'LL BE THE JUDGE OF IT GRADE.     Check out my other items!Be sure to add me to your favorites list! GOOD LUCK . AND THANK YOU . ITEM  NO. 11-27-14.N.2 N.PIC. 11-26-14.   THANK YOU  AND GOOD LUCK.  VERY SCARCE$$  AND  RARE$$ COLLECTIBLE ANCIENT  ROMAN    ARTIFACT.  VERY RARE$$$ FIND. IN ONE OF MY ANCIENT ROMAN ARTIFACTS LOT, FROM AUTHENTIC ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN EUROPE ,  UNCLEAN AS FOUNDED BURRIED UNDER GROUND FOR SO MANY YEARS., DIRT, CORROSION etc...   ALMOST 2000 YEARS. WOW...  HAVE NO IDEA WHAT'S UNDER,  TILL I  FINISH CLENNING THEM. MOST COME WITH LITTLE OR NO DETAILS , CORRODED , THIS ONE WAS WELL PRESERVED . LOOKS FANTASTIC, GREAT. GOOD LUCK. THANK YOU. EXTREMELY RARE$$$, IN MORE THE 30 YEARS OF COLLECTING BUYING AND SELLING ANCIENT ROMAN AND GREEK AND BYZANTINE COINS AND ARTIFACTS , NEVER SEE ONE LIKE THIS, SPECIAL IN THIS GREAT CONDITION. WELL, WELL PRESERVED. WOW... YOU WON'T SEE OTHER ONE LIKE THIS IN ANOTHER 30 YERAS... UNIQUE... ARTIFACT.

 

Bruttium: 211 Bc The Bretti, Bronze Zeus Eagle

Bruttium: 211 Bc The Bretti, Bronze Zeus Eagle

Bruttium: 211 Bc The Bretti, Bronze Zeus Eagle is available for sale on eBay at $450.00 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

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5402] 

 

 Bruttium: The Bretti
Bronze (28mm, 10.54 gm.) Bruttium: The Bretti,  211-208 B.C.
Reference: HNItaly 1994; SNG Copenhagen 1676; SNG ANS 133.
Laureate head of Zeus right at left dagger.
 BPET-TIΩN, eagle standing left with open wings and head reverted; at left, 
plough.

Provided with certificate of authenticity.

CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD - Numismatic Expert 
 

The Bruttii spoke Oscan, as attested by several finds of Oscan 
script, though this may have been a later influence from their Sabellic 
neighbors, the Lucani.

Both Greek and Latin writers expressly tell us that Bruttii was the name of the 
people: no separate designation for the country or province appears to have been 
adopted by the Romans, who almost universally use the plural form, or name of 
the nation, to designate the region which they inhabited. Thus Livy uses 
Consentia in Bruttiis, extremus Italiae angulus Bruttii, Bruttii provincia, 
etc.: and the same usage prevailed down to a very late period. The name of 
Bruttium to designate the province or region, though adopted by almost all 
modern writers on ancient geography appears to be unsupported by any classical 
authority: Pomponius Mela, indeed, uses in one passage the phrase in Bruttio, 
but it is probable that this is merely an elliptic expression for in Bruttio 
agro, the term used by him in another passage, as well as by many other writers. 
The Greeks, however, used Βρεττία for the name of the country, reserving 
Βρέττιοι for that of the people. Polybius, in more than one passage, calls it ἡ 
Βρεττιανὴ Χώρα.

The land of the Bruttians, or Bruttium, was bounded on the north by Lucania, 
from which it was separated by a line drawn from the river Laus near the 
Tyrrhenian Sea to the Crathis near the Gulf of Tarentum. On the west it was 
washed by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and on the south and east by that known in ancient 
times as the Sicilian Sea, including under that appellation the Gulf of 
Tarentum.

All ancient authors agree in stating that neither the name nor the origin of the 
Bruttians could claim a very remote antiquity. The country occupied by them was 
inhabited, in the earliest times described by ancient historians, by the 
Oenotrians – a tribe of Pelasgian origin, of which the Conii and Morgetes appear 
to have been merely subordinate divisions. It was while the Oenotrians were 
still masters of the land that the first Greek settlers arrived; and the beauty 
of the climate and country, as well as the rapid prosperity attained by these 
first settlements, proved so attractive that within a few years the shores of 
Bruttium were completely encircled by a belt of Greek colonies, part of Magna 
Graecia. There are few other informations about the exact relations between 
these Greek cities and the native Oenotrian tribes, though most likely the 
latter were reduced to a state of dependence, and at one time at least of 
complete subjection. The territories of the Greek cities comprised the whole 
line of coast, so that those of Crotona and Thurii met at the river Hylias, and 
those of Locri and Rhegium were separated only by the Halex;[5] since both 
Crotona and Locri founded colonies on the opposite side of the peninsula, most 
likely the intermediate districts also were at least nominally subject to them.

Such appears to have been the state of things at the time of the Peloponnesian 
War; but in the course of the following century a great change took place. The 
Sabellian tribe of the Lucanians, who had been gradually extending their 
conquests towards the south, and had already made themselves masters of the 
northern parts of Oenotria, now pressed forwards into the Bruttian peninsula, 
and established their dominion over the interior of that country, reducing its 
previous inhabitants to a state of vassalage or serfdom. This probably took 
place after their great victory over the Thurians, near Laus, in 390 BCE; and 
little more than 30 years elapsed between this event and the rise of the people, 
properly called Bruttians. These are represented by ancient authors as merely a 
congregation of revolted slaves and other fugitives, who had taken refuge in the 
wild mountain regions of the peninsula: it seems probable that a considerable 
portion of them were the native Oenotrian or Pelasgic inhabitants, who gladly 
embraced the opportunity to throw off the foreign yoke.[6] But Justin distinctly 
describes them as headed by youths of Lucanian race; and there appears 
sufficient evidence of their close connection with the Lucanians to warrant the 
assumption that these formed an important ingredient in their national 
composition.

The name of Bruttii (Βρέττιοι) was given them, it seems, not by the Greeks, but 
by the Lucanians, and signified in their language rebels (δραπέται, ἀποστάται). 
But though used at first as a term of reproach, it was subsequently adopted by 
the Bruttians themselves, who, when they had risen to the rank of a powerful 
nation, pretended to derive it from a hero named Bruttus (Βρέττος), the son of 
Hercules and Valentia. Justin, on the other hand, represents them as deriving 
their name from a woman of the name of Bruttia, who figured in their first 
revolt, and who, in later versions of the legend, assumes the dignity of a 
queen.

The rise of the Bruttian people from this fortuitous aggregation of rebels and 
fugitives is assigned by Diodorus to the year 356 BCE; and this accords with the 
statement of Strabo that they arose at the period of the expedition of Dion 
against the younger Dionysius. The wars of the latter, as well as of his father, 
with the Greek cities in southern Italy, and the state of confusion and weakness 
to which these were reduced in consequence, probably contributed in a great 
degree to pave the way for the rise of the Bruttian power. The name must indeed 
have been much more ancient, since Diodorus, in another passage, speaks of the 
Bruttians as having expelled the remainder of the Sybarites, who had settled 
Sybaris on the Traeis after the destruction of their own city. But it is 
probable that this is a mere inaccuracy of expression, and that he only means to 
designate the inhabitants of the country, who were afterwards called Bruttians. 
Stephanus of Byzantium, indeed, cites Antiochus of Syracuse, as using the name 
of Brettia for this part of Italy, but this seems to be clearly a mistake. The 
progress of the latter, after their first appearance in history, was rapid. 
Composed originally of mere troops of outlaws and bandits, they soon became 
numerous and powerful enough to defy the arms of the Lucanians, and not only 
maintained their independence in the mountain districts of the interior, but 
attacked and made themselves masters of the Greek cities of Hipponium, Terina, 
and Thurii. Their independence seems to have been readily acknowledged by the 
Lucanians; and less than 30 years after their first revolt, the two nations 
united their arms as allies against their Greek neighbors. The latter applied 
for assistance to Alexander, king of Epirus, who crossed over into Italy with an 
army, and carried on the war for several successive campaigns, during which he 
reduced Heraclea, Consentia (modern Cosenza), and Terina; but finally perished 
in a battle against the combined forces of the Lucanians and Bruttians, near 
Pandosia, 326 BCE.

They next had to contend against the arms of Agathocles, who ravaged their 
coasts with his fleets, took the city of Hipponium, which he converted into a 
strong fortress and naval station, and compelled the Bruttians to conclude a 
disadvantageous peace. But they soon broke this treaty; and recovered possession 
of Hipponium. This appears to have been the period when the Bruttian nation had 
reached its highest pitch of power and prosperity; it was not long before they 
had to contend with a more formidable adversary, and as early as 282 BCE they 
joined and the Lucanians and Samnites against the growing power of Rome. A few 
years later they are mentioned as sending auxiliaries to the army of Pyrrhus; 
but after the defeat of that monarch, and his expulsion from Italy, they had to 
bear the full brunt of the war, and after repeated campaigns and successive 
triumphs of the Roman generals, Gaius Fabricius Luscinus and Lucius Papirius, 
they were finally reduced to submission, and compelled to purchase peace by the 
surrender of one-half of the great forest of Sila, so valuable for its pitch and 
timber.

Their submission however was still but imperfect; and though they regained 
tranquil throughout the First Punic War, the successes of Hannibal in the Second 
proved too much for their fidelity, and the Bruttians were among the first to 
declare in favor of the Carthaginian general after the Battle of Cannae. The 
defection of the people did not indeed in the first instance draw with it that 
of the towns: but Petelia and Consentia, which had at first held aloof, were 
speedily reduced by the Bruttians, assisted by a small Carthaginian force, and 
the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium 
alone remained firm, and was able to defy the Carthaginian arms throughout the 
war. In 215 BCE, Hanno, the lieutenant of Hannibal, after his defeat at 
Grumentum by Tiberius Gracchus, threw himself into Bruttium, where he was soon 
after joined by a body of fresh troops from Carthage under Bomilcar: and from 
this time he made that region his stronghold, from whence he repeatedly issued 
to oppose the Roman generals in Lucania and Samnium, while he constantly fell 
back upon it as a place of safety when defeated or hard pressed by the enemy. 
The physical character of the country rendered it necessarily a military 
position of the greatest strength: and after the defeat and death of Hasdrubal 
Hannibal himself put forces into some Bruttian territory, where he continued to 
maintain his ground against the Roman generals.[18] There are very little 
information concerning the operations of the four years during which Hannibal 
retained his positions in this province: he appears to have made his 
headquarters for the most part in the neighbourhood of Crotona, but the name of 
Castra Hannibalis retained by a small town on the Gulf of Squillace, points to 
his having occupied this also as a permanent station. Meanwhile the Romans, 
though avoiding any decisive engagement, were continually gaining ground on him 
by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses, so that very few of these 
remained in the hands of the Carthaginian general when he was finally recalled 
from Italy.

The ravages of so many successive campaigns must have already inflicted a severe 
blow upon the prosperity of Bruttium: the measures adopted by the Romans to 
punish them for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They were deprived 
of a great part of their territory, and the whole nation reduced to a state 
bordering on servitude: they were not admitted like the other nations of Italy 
to rank as allies, but were pronounced incapable of military service, and only 
employed to attend upon the Roman magistrates as couriers or letter-carriers, 
and attendants for other purposes of a menial character. It was however some 
time before they were altogether crushed: for several years after the close of 
the Second Punic War, one of the praetors was annually sent with an army to 
watch over the Bruttians: and it was evidently with the view of more fully 
securing their subjection that three colonies were established in their 
territory, two of Roman citizens at Tempsa and Crotona, and a third with Latin 
rights at Hipponium, to which the name of Vibo Valentia was now given. A fourth 
was at the same time settled at Thurii on their immediate frontier.

From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history: but their 
country again became the theatre of war during the revolt of Spartacus, who 
after his first defeats by Crassus, took refuge in the southernmost portion of 
Bruttium (called by Plutarch the Rhegian peninsula), in which the Roman general 
sought to confine him by drawing lines of intrenchment across the isthmus from 
sea to sea. The insurgent leader however forced his way through, and again 
carried the war into the heart of Lucania. During the Civil Wars the coasts of 
Bruttium were repeatedly laid waste by the fleets of Sextus Pompeius, and 
witnessed several conflicts between the latter and those of Octavian, who had 
established the headquarters both of his army and navy at Vibo.Strabo speaks of 
the whole province as reduced in his time to a state of complete decay. It was 
included by Augustus in the Third Region (Regio III), together with Lucania; and 
the two provinces appear to have continued united for most administrative 
purposes until the fall of the Roman Empire, and were governed conjointly by a 
magistrate termed a Corrector. The Liber Coloniarum however treats of the 
Provincia Bruttiorum as distinct from that of Lucania.

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Indoskythian Azilises Circa 8545/35 Bc Ar Tetradrachm Senior 321 T

Indoskythian Azilises Circa 8545/35 Bc Ar Tetradrachm Senior 321 T

Indoskythian Azilises Circa 8545/35 Bc Ar Tetradrachm Senior 321 T is available for sale on eBay at $339.99 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

Indo-Skythian Azilises Circa 85-45/35 BC AR Tetradrachm

Weight: 9.27g

Diameter: 28mm

Die Axis: 1h

Reference: Senior 32.1 T

Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central and northern South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, UP and Bihar.), from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.

The first Saka king in south Asia was Maues (Moga) (1st century BC) who established Saka power in Gandhara (modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan region) and gradually extended supremacy over north-western India. Indo-Scythian rule in northwestern India ended with the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III in AD 395 who was defeated by the Indian Emperor Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century AD after the Indo-Scythians were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty . Later the Saka kingdom was completely destroyed by Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire in the 4th century.

The invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion, played a significant part in the history of South Asia as well as nearby countries. In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with tribes such as the Xiongnu in the 2nd century AD, which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul, Parthia and India as well as far-off Rome in the west.

It has been claimed that ancient Roman historians including Arrian and Claudius Ptolemy have mentioned that the ancient Sakas ('Sakai') were basically nomads. However, Italo Ronca, in his detailed study of Ptolemy's chapter vi, marks the statement: "The land of the Sakai belongs to nomads, they have no towns but dwell in forests and caves" as spurious.

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Ionia: Ephesus, 280 Bc Bronze Bee Stag

Ionia: Ephesus, 280 Bc Bronze  Bee Stag

Ionia: Ephesus, 280 Bc Bronze Bee Stag is available for sale on eBay at $225.00 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

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[ 5403]

 IONIA: EPHESOS
Bronze (16mm, 4.25 gm) Ephesus, c. 280-250 B.C.
Reference: SNG von Aulock 1842.
 E - Φ. Bee within wreath.
 ΣOΛΩN. Stag grazing right; quiver above.

Provided with certificate of authenticity.

CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD - Numismatic Expert

Ephesus (Ancient 
Greek
Ἔφεσος,

Turkish Efes) 
was an ancient Greek city on the west coast of

Anatolia, near 
present-day

Selçuk,

Izmir Province,

Turkey. It was one 
of the twelve cities of the

Ionian League 
during the

Classical Greek 
era. In the Roman period, it was for many years the 
second largest city of the

Roman Empire; 
ranking behind

Rome, the empire's 
capital. Ephesus had a population of more than 
250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it 
the second largest city in the world.

The city was famed for the

Temple of Artemis 
(completed around 550 BCE), one of the

Seven Wonders of the Ancient 
World. The Temple was destroyed in 401 CE 
by a mob led by St.

John Chrysostom. 
Emperor

Constantine I 
rebuilt much of the city and erected new public 
baths. The town was again partially destroyed by an 
earthquake in 614. The city's importance as a 
commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly 
silted up by the

Cayster River (Küçük 
Menderes).

Ephesus was one of the

seven churches of Asia 
that are cited in the

Book of Revelation. 
The

Gospel of John may 
have been written here. It is also the site of a 
large

gladiators' 
graveyard.

Today's archaeological site lies 
3 kilometers southwest of the town of

Selçuk, in the 
Selçuk district of

İzmir Province,

Turkey. The

ruins of Ephesus 
are a favorite international and local tourist 
attraction, partly owing to their easy access from

Adnan Menderes Airport 
and via the port of

Kuşadası.

 History

 Neolithic 
age

The area surrounding Ephesus was 
already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 
6000 BCE), as was revealed by the excavations at the 
nearby hoyuk (artificial mounds known as

tells) of Arvalya 
and Cukurici.

 Bronze 
age

Excavations in recent years have 
unearthed settlements from the early

Bronze Age at the 
Ayasuluk Hill. In 1954 a burial ground from the

Mycenaean era 
(1500-1400 BCE) with ceramic pots was discovered 
close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John. This 
was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the

Achaioi (as 
they were called by

Homer) settled in

Ahhiyawa during the 
14th and 13th centuries BCE. Scholars believe that 
Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or
Abasa), a

Bronze Age-city 
noted in 14th-century BCE

Hittite sources as 
in the land of

Ahhiyawa.

 Dark 
age

Site of the

Temple of Artemis 
in the town of

Selçuk, 
near Ephesus.

The city of Ephesus itself 
was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th 
century BCE on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers 
from the center of antique Ephesus (as attested by 
excavations at the

Seljuk castle 
during the 1990s). The mythical founder of the city 
was a prince of

Athens named

Androklos, who had 
to leave his country after the death of his father, 
King Kadros. According to legend, he founded Ephesus 
on the place where the oracle of

Delphi became 
reality ("A fish and a boar will show you the way"). 
Androklos drove away most of the native

Carian and

Lelegian 
inhabitants of the city and united his people with 
the remainder. He was a successful warrior and, as 
king, he was able to join the twelve cities of

Ionia together into 
the

Ionian League. 
During his reign the city began to prosper. He died 
in a battle against the Carians when he came to the 
aid of

Priene, another 
city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are 
depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, dating from 
the second century. Later, Greek historians such as

Pausanias,

Strabo and the poet 
Kallinos, and the historian

Herodotos however 
reassigned the city's mythological foundation to 
Ephos, queen of the

Amazons.

The Greek goddess

Artemis and the 
great Anatolian goddess

Kybele were 
identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. 
The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with

Artemis, was 
venerated in the

Temple of Artemis, 
one of the

Seven Wonders of the World 
and the largest building of the ancient world 
according to

Pausanias (4.31.8). 
Pausanius mentions that the temple was built by 
Ephesus, son of the river god

Caystrus. before 
the arrival of the Ionians. Of this structure, 
scarcely a trace remains.

 Archaic 
period

About 650 BCE, Ephesus was 
attacked by the

Cimmerians, who 
razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. A 
few small Cimmerian artifacts can be seen at the 
archaeological museum of Ephesus.

When the Cimmerians had been 
driven away, the city was ruled by a series of 
tyrants. After a revolt by the people, Ephesus was 
ruled by a council called the Kuretes. The 
city prospered again, producing a number of 
important historical figures, such as the

iambic poets

Callinus and the 
satirist

Hipponax, the 
philosopher

Heraclitus, the 
great painter

Parrhasius and 
later the grammarian

Zenodotos, the 
physicians

Soranus and Rufus.

About 560 BCE Ephesus was 
conquered by the

Lydians under the 
mighty king

Croesus. He treated 
the inhabitants with respect, despite ruling 
harshly, and even became the main contributor to the 
reconstruction of the temple of Artemis. His 
signature has been found on the base of one of the 
columns of the temple (now on display in the

British Museum). 
Croesus made the populations of the different 
settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) 
in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging 
the city.

Later in the same century, the 
Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians 
refused a peace offer from

Cyrus the Great, 
siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians 
defeated Croesus the Ionians offered to make peace 
but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become 
part of the empire. They were defeated by the 
Persian army commander

Harpagos in 547 
BCE. The Persians then incorporated the Greek cities 
of Asia Minor into the

Achaemenid Empire. 
Those cities were then ruled by

satraps.

Ephesus has intrigued 
archaeologists for the main reason that for the 
Archaic Period, there is no definite location for 
the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest 
the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age 
and the Roman period but the silting up of the 
natural harbors as well as the movement of the 
Kayster River meant that the location never 
remainded the same.

 Classical 
period

Ephesus continued to prosper. But 
when taxes continued to be raised under

Cambyses II and

Darius, the 
Ephesians participated in the

Ionian Revolt 
against Persian rule in the

Battle of Ephesus (498 BCE), 
an event which instigated the

Greco-Persian wars. 
In 479 BCE, the Ionians, together with

Athens and

Sparta, were able 
to oust the Persians from Anatolia. In 478 BCE, the 
Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta into 
the

Delian League 
against the Persians. Ephesus did not contribute 
ships but gave financial support by offering the 
treasure of

Apollo to the 
goddess

Athena, protectress 
of Athens.

During the

Peloponnesian War, 
Ephesus was first allied to Athens but sided in a 
later phase, called the Decelean War, or the Ionian 
War, with Sparta, which also had received the 
support of the Persians. As a result, rule over the 
kingdoms of Anatolia was ceded again to Persia.

These wars did not much affect 
daily life in Ephesus. The Ephesians were 
surprisingly modern in their social relations. They 
allowed strangers to integrate. Education was much 
valued. Through the cult of Artemis, the city also 
became a bastion of women's rights. Ephesus even had 
its female artists. In later times,

Pliny the Elder 
mentioned having seen at Ephesus a representation of 
the goddess

Diana by Timarata, 
the daughter of a painter.

In 356 BCE the temple of Artemis 
was burned down, according to legend, by a lunatic 
called Herostratus. By coincidence, this was the 
night that

Alexander the Great 
was born. The inhabitants of Ephesus at once set 
about restoring the temple and even planned a larger 
and grander one than the original.

 Hellenistic 
period

Historical map of 
Ephesus, from

Meyers 
Konversationslexikon, 
1888

When

Alexander the Great 
defeated the Persian forces at the

Battle of Granicus 
in 334 BCE, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were 
liberated. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his 
family were stoned to death, and Alexander was 
greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph. 
When Alexander saw that the temple of Artemis was 
not yet finished, he proposed to finance it and have 
his name inscribed on the front. But the inhabitants 
of Ephesus demurred, claiming that it was not 
fitting for one god to build a temple to another. 
After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Ephesus in 290 
BCE came under the rule of one of Alexander's 
generals,

Lysimachus.

As the river

Cayster silted up 
the harbor, the resulting marshes caused malaria and 
many deaths among the inhabitants. The people of 
Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement two 
kilometers further on, when the king flooded the old 
city by blocking the sewers. This settlement was 
called after the king's second wife,

Arsinoe II of Egypt. 
After

Lysimachus had 
destroyed the nearby cities of

Lebedos and

Colophon in 292 
BCE, he relocated their inhabitants to the new city. 
The architectural layout of the city would remain 
unchanged for the next 500 years.

Ephesus revolted after the 
treacherous death of

Agathocles, giving 
the Syrian king

Seleucus I Nicator 
an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, 
his last rival, at the

Battle of Corupedium 
in 281 BCE. After the death of Lysimachos the town 
took again the name of Ephesus.

Thus Ephese became part of the

Seleucid Empire. 
After the murder of king

Antiochus II Theos 
and his Egyptian wife, pharaoh

Ptolemy III invaded 
the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the 
coast of Asia Minor. Ephesus came under Egyptian 
rule between 263-197 BCE.

When the Seleucid king

Antiochus III the Great 
tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he 
came in conflict with

Rome. After a 
series of battles, he was defeated by

Scipio Asiaticus at 
the

Battle of Magnesia 
in 190 BCE. As a result, Ephesus came under the rule 
of the Attalid king of

Pergamon

Eumenes II (197-133 
BCE). When his grandson

Attalus III died 
without male children of his own, he left his 
kingdom to the

Roman Republic.

 

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