Category Archives: e Ancient Greek Coins

Extremely Fine Sicily, Kamarina 420 Bc Gorgoneion Owl Grasping Lizard A+

Extremely Fine  Sicily, Kamarina 420 Bc Gorgoneion Owl Grasping Lizard A+

Extremely Fine Sicily, Kamarina 420 Bc Gorgoneion Owl Grasping Lizard A+ is available for sale on eBay at $1.00 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

SICILY, Kamarina. Circa 420-410 BC. 1.38 gm, 13 mm. Gorgoneion /
[K]AMA, owl standing right, grasping lizard; One pellets in
exergue. Extremely Fine!  Dark Black Patina.

Wildwinds link for identification below: 
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Gorgeous Silver Greek Tetradrachm Patraos Paeonia War Scene 335315 Bc Apollo

Gorgeous Silver Greek Tetradrachm Patraos Paeonia War Scene 335315 Bc Apollo

Gorgeous Silver Greek Tetradrachm Patraos Paeonia War Scene 335315 Bc Apollo is available for sale on eBay at $1.00 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

Hello.You're bidding on a guenine and gorgeous silver tetradrachm. Greece, Paeonia, 335 - 315 BC. Unknown macedonian mint place.Obverse : Laureate head of Apollo to right.Reverse : warrior on horse rearing right, spearing enemy warrior holding shield and spear, kantharos behind.Silver, 12.19 grams, about 24 mms.  Numismatic references :  Sothesby's, "Paeonian hoard", number 298.This coin is guaranted  guenine ; please note I bought it at Dr LANZ, NUMISMATIK LANZ, Maximilanplatz10, 80333 MUNCHEN (GERMANY).Please note I only accept PayPal (free for you - fees for me, and secure for you and me).Starts at only USD 1, no reserve price (just market price !).Shipping only USD 5 (less than the real cost)  everywhere in the world, in an international registred (sign for) letter. Free shipping for three or more coins bought to me (sales ending the same day).Would you please look at the others coins I've for sale ?Thank you and good luck.

Bruttium: 211 Bc The Bretti, Bronze Zeus Eagle

Bruttium: 211 Bc The Bretti, Bronze Zeus Eagle

Bruttium: 211 Bc The Bretti, Bronze Zeus Eagle is available for sale on eBay at $450.00 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

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 Bruttium: The Bretti
Bronze (28mm, 10.54 gm.) Bruttium: The Bretti,  211-208 B.C.
Reference: HNItaly 1994; SNG Copenhagen 1676; SNG ANS 133.
Laureate head of Zeus right at left dagger.
 BPET-TIΩN, eagle standing left with open wings and head reverted; at left, 

Provided with certificate of authenticity.

CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD - Numismatic Expert 

The Bruttii spoke Oscan, as attested by several finds of Oscan 
script, though this may have been a later influence from their Sabellic 
neighbors, the Lucani.

Both Greek and Latin writers expressly tell us that Bruttii was the name of the 
people: no separate designation for the country or province appears to have been 
adopted by the Romans, who almost universally use the plural form, or name of 
the nation, to designate the region which they inhabited. Thus Livy uses 
Consentia in Bruttiis, extremus Italiae angulus Bruttii, Bruttii provincia, 
etc.: and the same usage prevailed down to a very late period. The name of 
Bruttium to designate the province or region, though adopted by almost all 
modern writers on ancient geography appears to be unsupported by any classical 
authority: Pomponius Mela, indeed, uses in one passage the phrase in Bruttio, 
but it is probable that this is merely an elliptic expression for in Bruttio 
agro, the term used by him in another passage, as well as by many other writers. 
The Greeks, however, used Βρεττία for the name of the country, reserving 
Βρέττιοι for that of the people. Polybius, in more than one passage, calls it ἡ 
Βρεττιανὴ Χώρα.

The land of the Bruttians, or Bruttium, was bounded on the north by Lucania, 
from which it was separated by a line drawn from the river Laus near the 
Tyrrhenian Sea to the Crathis near the Gulf of Tarentum. On the west it was 
washed by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and on the south and east by that known in ancient 
times as the Sicilian Sea, including under that appellation the Gulf of 

All ancient authors agree in stating that neither the name nor the origin of the 
Bruttians could claim a very remote antiquity. The country occupied by them was 
inhabited, in the earliest times described by ancient historians, by the 
Oenotrians – a tribe of Pelasgian origin, of which the Conii and Morgetes appear 
to have been merely subordinate divisions. It was while the Oenotrians were 
still masters of the land that the first Greek settlers arrived; and the beauty 
of the climate and country, as well as the rapid prosperity attained by these 
first settlements, proved so attractive that within a few years the shores of 
Bruttium were completely encircled by a belt of Greek colonies, part of Magna 
Graecia. There are few other informations about the exact relations between 
these Greek cities and the native Oenotrian tribes, though most likely the 
latter were reduced to a state of dependence, and at one time at least of 
complete subjection. The territories of the Greek cities comprised the whole 
line of coast, so that those of Crotona and Thurii met at the river Hylias, and 
those of Locri and Rhegium were separated only by the Halex;[5] since both 
Crotona and Locri founded colonies on the opposite side of the peninsula, most 
likely the intermediate districts also were at least nominally subject to them.

Such appears to have been the state of things at the time of the Peloponnesian 
War; but in the course of the following century a great change took place. The 
Sabellian tribe of the Lucanians, who had been gradually extending their 
conquests towards the south, and had already made themselves masters of the 
northern parts of Oenotria, now pressed forwards into the Bruttian peninsula, 
and established their dominion over the interior of that country, reducing its 
previous inhabitants to a state of vassalage or serfdom. This probably took 
place after their great victory over the Thurians, near Laus, in 390 BCE; and 
little more than 30 years elapsed between this event and the rise of the people, 
properly called Bruttians. These are represented by ancient authors as merely a 
congregation of revolted slaves and other fugitives, who had taken refuge in the 
wild mountain regions of the peninsula: it seems probable that a considerable 
portion of them were the native Oenotrian or Pelasgic inhabitants, who gladly 
embraced the opportunity to throw off the foreign yoke.[6] But Justin distinctly 
describes them as headed by youths of Lucanian race; and there appears 
sufficient evidence of their close connection with the Lucanians to warrant the 
assumption that these formed an important ingredient in their national 

The name of Bruttii (Βρέττιοι) was given them, it seems, not by the Greeks, but 
by the Lucanians, and signified in their language rebels (δραπέται, ἀποστάται). 
But though used at first as a term of reproach, it was subsequently adopted by 
the Bruttians themselves, who, when they had risen to the rank of a powerful 
nation, pretended to derive it from a hero named Bruttus (Βρέττος), the son of 
Hercules and Valentia. Justin, on the other hand, represents them as deriving 
their name from a woman of the name of Bruttia, who figured in their first 
revolt, and who, in later versions of the legend, assumes the dignity of a 

The rise of the Bruttian people from this fortuitous aggregation of rebels and 
fugitives is assigned by Diodorus to the year 356 BCE; and this accords with the 
statement of Strabo that they arose at the period of the expedition of Dion 
against the younger Dionysius. The wars of the latter, as well as of his father, 
with the Greek cities in southern Italy, and the state of confusion and weakness 
to which these were reduced in consequence, probably contributed in a great 
degree to pave the way for the rise of the Bruttian power. The name must indeed 
have been much more ancient, since Diodorus, in another passage, speaks of the 
Bruttians as having expelled the remainder of the Sybarites, who had settled 
Sybaris on the Traeis after the destruction of their own city. But it is 
probable that this is a mere inaccuracy of expression, and that he only means to 
designate the inhabitants of the country, who were afterwards called Bruttians. 
Stephanus of Byzantium, indeed, cites Antiochus of Syracuse, as using the name 
of Brettia for this part of Italy, but this seems to be clearly a mistake. The 
progress of the latter, after their first appearance in history, was rapid. 
Composed originally of mere troops of outlaws and bandits, they soon became 
numerous and powerful enough to defy the arms of the Lucanians, and not only 
maintained their independence in the mountain districts of the interior, but 
attacked and made themselves masters of the Greek cities of Hipponium, Terina, 
and Thurii. Their independence seems to have been readily acknowledged by the 
Lucanians; and less than 30 years after their first revolt, the two nations 
united their arms as allies against their Greek neighbors. The latter applied 
for assistance to Alexander, king of Epirus, who crossed over into Italy with an 
army, and carried on the war for several successive campaigns, during which he 
reduced Heraclea, Consentia (modern Cosenza), and Terina; but finally perished 
in a battle against the combined forces of the Lucanians and Bruttians, near 
Pandosia, 326 BCE.

They next had to contend against the arms of Agathocles, who ravaged their 
coasts with his fleets, took the city of Hipponium, which he converted into a 
strong fortress and naval station, and compelled the Bruttians to conclude a 
disadvantageous peace. But they soon broke this treaty; and recovered possession 
of Hipponium. This appears to have been the period when the Bruttian nation had 
reached its highest pitch of power and prosperity; it was not long before they 
had to contend with a more formidable adversary, and as early as 282 BCE they 
joined and the Lucanians and Samnites against the growing power of Rome. A few 
years later they are mentioned as sending auxiliaries to the army of Pyrrhus; 
but after the defeat of that monarch, and his expulsion from Italy, they had to 
bear the full brunt of the war, and after repeated campaigns and successive 
triumphs of the Roman generals, Gaius Fabricius Luscinus and Lucius Papirius, 
they were finally reduced to submission, and compelled to purchase peace by the 
surrender of one-half of the great forest of Sila, so valuable for its pitch and 

Their submission however was still but imperfect; and though they regained 
tranquil throughout the First Punic War, the successes of Hannibal in the Second 
proved too much for their fidelity, and the Bruttians were among the first to 
declare in favor of the Carthaginian general after the Battle of Cannae. The 
defection of the people did not indeed in the first instance draw with it that 
of the towns: but Petelia and Consentia, which had at first held aloof, were 
speedily reduced by the Bruttians, assisted by a small Carthaginian force, and 
the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium 
alone remained firm, and was able to defy the Carthaginian arms throughout the 
war. In 215 BCE, Hanno, the lieutenant of Hannibal, after his defeat at 
Grumentum by Tiberius Gracchus, threw himself into Bruttium, where he was soon 
after joined by a body of fresh troops from Carthage under Bomilcar: and from 
this time he made that region his stronghold, from whence he repeatedly issued 
to oppose the Roman generals in Lucania and Samnium, while he constantly fell 
back upon it as a place of safety when defeated or hard pressed by the enemy. 
The physical character of the country rendered it necessarily a military 
position of the greatest strength: and after the defeat and death of Hasdrubal 
Hannibal himself put forces into some Bruttian territory, where he continued to 
maintain his ground against the Roman generals.[18] There are very little 
information concerning the operations of the four years during which Hannibal 
retained his positions in this province: he appears to have made his 
headquarters for the most part in the neighbourhood of Crotona, but the name of 
Castra Hannibalis retained by a small town on the Gulf of Squillace, points to 
his having occupied this also as a permanent station. Meanwhile the Romans, 
though avoiding any decisive engagement, were continually gaining ground on him 
by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses, so that very few of these 
remained in the hands of the Carthaginian general when he was finally recalled 
from Italy.

The ravages of so many successive campaigns must have already inflicted a severe 
blow upon the prosperity of Bruttium: the measures adopted by the Romans to 
punish them for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They were deprived 
of a great part of their territory, and the whole nation reduced to a state 
bordering on servitude: they were not admitted like the other nations of Italy 
to rank as allies, but were pronounced incapable of military service, and only 
employed to attend upon the Roman magistrates as couriers or letter-carriers, 
and attendants for other purposes of a menial character. It was however some 
time before they were altogether crushed: for several years after the close of 
the Second Punic War, one of the praetors was annually sent with an army to 
watch over the Bruttians: and it was evidently with the view of more fully 
securing their subjection that three colonies were established in their 
territory, two of Roman citizens at Tempsa and Crotona, and a third with Latin 
rights at Hipponium, to which the name of Vibo Valentia was now given. A fourth 
was at the same time settled at Thurii on their immediate frontier.

From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history: but their 
country again became the theatre of war during the revolt of Spartacus, who 
after his first defeats by Crassus, took refuge in the southernmost portion of 
Bruttium (called by Plutarch the Rhegian peninsula), in which the Roman general 
sought to confine him by drawing lines of intrenchment across the isthmus from 
sea to sea. The insurgent leader however forced his way through, and again 
carried the war into the heart of Lucania. During the Civil Wars the coasts of 
Bruttium were repeatedly laid waste by the fleets of Sextus Pompeius, and 
witnessed several conflicts between the latter and those of Octavian, who had 
established the headquarters both of his army and navy at Vibo.Strabo speaks of 
the whole province as reduced in his time to a state of complete decay. It was 
included by Augustus in the Third Region (Regio III), together with Lucania; and 
the two provinces appear to have continued united for most administrative 
purposes until the fall of the Roman Empire, and were governed conjointly by a 
magistrate termed a Corrector. The Liber Coloniarum however treats of the 
Provincia Bruttiorum as distinct from that of Lucania.

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Sicily: Syracuse, 304 Bc Under Agathocles Bronze Artemis Thunderbolt

Sicily: Syracuse, 304 Bc Under Agathocles  Bronze Artemis Thunderbolt

Sicily: Syracuse, 304 Bc Under Agathocles Bronze Artemis Thunderbolt is available for sale on eBay at $295.00 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

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[ 5405]

under Agathocles: Tyrant of Syracuse 317-289, King of Sicily 304-289 B.C.

(22mm, 9.35 gm) 
Reference: Sear 1200; BAR issue 33; CNS 142; SNG ANS 708; Calciati II pg. 277, 
142; SNG ANS 708ff.
ΣΩTЄIPA, head of Artemis right, in triple-pendant earring & necklace, quiver 
over shoulder.
Winged thunderbolt, AΓAΘOKΛEOΣ above, BAΣIΛEOΣ below.

Provided with certificate of authenticity.

CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD - Numismatic Expert

Symbols of Zeus are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, 
and oak. 
In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, 
the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives 
certain iconographic traits from the cultures of 
the Ancient 
Near East, such as the scepter. 
Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in 
one of two poses: standing, striding forward, 
with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right 
hand, or seated in majesty.

The Jupiter de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in 1680[1]












Artemis was 
one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient 
Greek deities. Her Roman equivalent 
is Diana. 
Some scholars believe that the name, and indeed 
the goddess herself, was originally pre-Greek. 
Homer refers to her asArtemis Agrotera, Potnia 
Theron: "Artemis of the wildland, 
Mistress of Animals". The Arcadians believed 
she was the daughter of Demeter.

File:Diane de Versailles Leochares.jpg

In the classical period of Greek 
mythology, Artemis (Ancient 
Greek: Ἄρτεμις) 
was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, 
and the twin sister of Apollo. 
She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild 
animals,wilderness, childbirth, virginity and 
protector of young girls, bringing and relieving 
disease in women; she often was depicted as a 
huntress carrying a bow and arrows. The deerand 
the cypress were 
sacred to her. In later Hellenistic times, she 
even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in 
aiding childbirth.


Didrachm from Ionie representing the 
goddess Artemis

Ancient Greek writers 
linked Artemis (Doric Artamis) 
by way of folk 
etymology to artemes (ἀρτεμής) 
‘safe’ or artamos (ἄρταμος) 
‘butcher’. However, the nameArtemis (variants Arktemis, Arktemisa) 
is most likely related to Greek árktos ‘bear’ 
, supported by the bear cult that the goddess 
had in Attica (Brauronia) 
and the Neolithic remains 
at the Arkoudiotissa 
Cave, as well as the story about Callisto, 
which was originally about Artemis (Arcadian epithet kallisto).

This cult was a survival of very old totemic 
and shamanistic rituals and formed part of a 
larger bear 
cultfound further afield in other Indo-European cultures 
(e.g., Gaulish Artio). 
It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was 
worshiped in Minoan 
Crete as 
the goddess of mountains and hunting, Britomartis. 
While connection with Anatolian names 
has been suggested, the earliest attested forms 
of the name Artemis are 
Greek a-te-mi-to and a-ti-mi-te, 
written in Linear 
B at Pylos. 
Artemis was venerated in Lydia asArtimus.

Artemis in mythology

Leto bore Apollon and 
Artemis, delighting in arrows,
Both of lovely shape like none of 
the heavenly gods,
As she joined in love to the Aegis-bearing 

—Hesiod, Theogony, 
lines 918–920 (written in the 7th 
century BC)


Artemis (on 
the left, with a deer) andApollo (on 
the right, holding a lyre) from Myrina, 
dating to approximately 25 BC

Apollo (left) and Artemis. Brygos(potter, 
signed), Briseis 
Painter, Tondo of an 
Attic red-figure cup, ca. 470 BC,Louvre.

Various conflicting accounts are given in 
Classical Greek mythology of the birth of 
Artemis and her twin brother, Apollo. All 
accounts agree, however, that she was the 
daughter of Zeus and Leto and 
that she was the twin sister of Apollo.

An account by Callimachus has 
it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on 
either terra firma (the mainland) or on an 
island. Hera was angry with Zeus, her husband, 
because he had impregnated Leto. But the island 
ofDelos (or Ortygia in 
the Homeric 
Hymn to Artemis) disobeyed Hera, and 
Leto gave birth there.

In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped 
at Phaistos and 
in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo 
and Artemis at the islands known today as the Paximadia.

A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. 
72 accounts for the island's archaic name 
Ortygia by asserting that Zeus transformed Leto 
into a quail (ortux) 
in order to prevent Hera from finding out his 
infidelity, and Kenneth McLeish suggested 
further that in quail form Leto would have given 
birth with as few birth-pains as a mother quail 
suffers when it lays an egg.

The myths also differ as to whether Artemis 
was born first, or Apollo. Most stories depict 
Artemis as born first, becoming her mother's 
mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo.


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Carthage, Second Punic War Circa 220215 Bc Æ Trishekel, Ef

Carthage, Second Punic War Circa 220215 Bc Æ Trishekel, Ef

Carthage, Second Punic War Circa 220215 Bc Æ Trishekel, Ef is available for sale on eBay at $749.00 (subject to changes) for a limited time. Buy it now at low price.

Carthage, Second Punic War. Circa 220-215 BC. Æ Trishekel 30 mm, 18.3 gm. Obv: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring Rev: Horse standing right; palm tree in background to left. MAA 84; Müller, Afrique 147; SNG Copenhagen (Africa) 344.Check out our Vcoins store: Praefectus Coins